Object Commando languages, development and design

13Jun/100

Mocking Clojure Protocols with Atticus

Atticus is a mocking library written by Hugo Duncan. For more information on Atticus, you can see Hugo's blog post from May here. I have added the ability to mock protocols to Atticus and would like some feedback as to the best approach for binding the mocked protocol instance. There's a survey below, but first a little background on the implementation.

Mocking Protocols

What makes the protocol instances a bit tough to mock is that they're not just straight Clojure functions. They dip a bit into Java and a bit into Clojure. With that in mind, using Atticus without modification, wouldn't allow the mocking of those protocols. Below is an example of some code that uses this new functionality:

(defprotocol Squared
  (square [impl x]))

(deftest mock-protocol-test
  (expects
   [(instance Squared
	      (square [impl y] (once (* y y))))]
   (is (= 9 (square instance 3)))))

Originally I had a marker function name mock-protocol-instance which didn't serve much purpose and was a bit awkward. Talking with Hugo, I switched it to the above syntax. The first item in that list is instance and is the symbol that the mocked protocol instance is bound to. The next item is the protocol followed by functions. The (once...) wrapped around the body of the function is existing functionality in Atticus that expands into the code to ensure the function was called exactly once. An example of mocking a regular function in Atticus is below:

(deftest test-cube
  (expects
   [(cube [y] (once (* y y y)))]
   (is (= 8 (cube 2)))))

The difference in this code and the first is that the binding syntax is familiar because it is similar to letfn. Below is an example of letfn:

(letfn [(add5 [x] (+ x 5))
	(subtract5 [x] (- x 5))]
  (= 7 (add5 (subtract5 7))))

In the style above, the first argument is the function name and so anything that refers to add5 in the body of the letfn gets the function bound above in the letfn. This letfn type of binding makes sense for Atticus when mocking functions. They both have similar goals, binding a function temporarily. Where this is a little more tricky is in mocking the protocol. In the first example above, the first element in the list is special. It's the symbol bound to the protocol instance. This is really more appropriate for a let style of binding. Where one element is the symbol and the other is an expression. Unfortunately, switching to a let style binding for the expects macro will make the syntax a little more cumbersome for mocking functions because you would have to add "fn". This would probably look something like this:

(deftest mock-protocol-test-alt
  (expects
    [instance (Squared
	       (square [impl y] (once (* y y))))
     cube (fn [y] (once (* y y y)))]
        (is (= 9 (square instance 3)))
	(is (= 8 (cube y 2)))))

The above is just spit balling, but the key point is that expects would use a let binding style. The first is a let style binding of the protocol instance and the second is binding a function.

Put it to a vote!

The question is, which one is better? Is sticking with the letfn binding and the brevity that it allows worth it even though the protocol mocking is a bit different? The letfn style is the first and second code examples above. Or is it confusing enough to warrant a little extra code around mocking functions (the example immediately above). Is there another approach that would be better? Below is just a quick survey on which one is preferable. Thanks for giving your input!